- As we have already explained to you during our first article, cannabis terpenes are responsible for the aroma as for the flavor of the plant.
- In this second article, we present the main terpenes contained in the cannabis plant and we describe to you what their specific properties are. Follow the leader !
1) Primary monoterpenes :
They are made up of 2 isoprene units, in other words, two blocks of 5 units. The best known monoterpenes are the myrcene, Alfa and Beta-Pinène (has-pinène and β-Pinène), THE silt, THE Beta-Caryophyllene (β-caryopphyllène), THE Terpinolène And OCIMène.
THE myrcene or β-myrcene is a monoterpene. This is indisputably the terpene that we find most commonly in the cannabis plant because it constitutes 50 % total production of essential oil of the latter. Its aromatic influence reflects a mixture terrly, of musk And grassy. Myrcene is the precursor of other terpenes.
A certain number of studies confirm that it is the Dominant phytotoTepene In A large majority of Dominance varieties indica, whose effect is sedative and relaxing. It would seem that if the plant contains a rate of concentration greater than or equal to 0.5 % of myrcene, then its action would be more marked in this sense. Other studies mention that this terpene would be interesting to deal with problems insomnia. It would seem that he also has properties anti-inflammatory, antibiotics And antimutagnes.
THE pinene is a bicyclical monoterpene, which simultaneously expresses an obvious double aromatic expression and similar to that of pine and fir tree. Two structural isomers are naturally present in our environment: α-Pinène And β-Pinène, The first being the one found most frequently.
This terpene has a function protector for the cannabis plant because it has an effect repulsive against pests. We can also meet him in many other species in the plant world, such as the parsley, THE rosemary, the dill, THE basil and the conifers.
A number of scientific studies confirm that Pinène has properties anti-inflammatory, bronchodilators even or even anticancerigens proven. A clinical study carried out in 2011, has shown that α-Pinène acts as a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and that it is capable of modulating the activity of this enzyme, which can contribute to an improvement in memory and processes cognitive.
This is the reason why we can deduce from it that it offers the possibility of mitigating the effects produced by THC. Most cannabis varieties with a high pinen content, generally produce an effect energizing.
THE silt is a monocyclic monoterpene, which is why certain varieties of cannabis offer us this delicious and Intense citrus scent. We realize that varieties from highest quality cannabis seeds containing a high level of fireflies, produce an effect invigorating. We find this terpene in certain aromatic herbs such as the rosemary, there mint, and also in all citrus.
From a physiological point of view, the lemonene is known for its many virtues antibacterial, antioxidants And antifungal. On the psychological level, the latter acts as an excellent natural antidepressant, Because it has the capacity to significantly improve mood.
Some scientific studies claim that this terpene would have the power to help restore homeostatic balance. While knowing that the imbalance of the neuroendocrine and immune function (which directly affect homeostase), is directly linked to psychosomatic or psychiatric disorders, the limonene could act effectively on the treatment of diseases such as the Depression Or various anxiety disorders.
THE β-caryophyllène is a sesquiterpene that we find quite frequently in cannabis, but also in the Basilica, THE clove and the cinnamon. He is responsible for the aromatic influence, slightly spicy And woody of some genetics. This allows us to logically understand that it is one of the active ingredients of black pepper. This specific terpene could be considered a cannabinoid in its own right, because it selectively combines with the CB2 receiver.
THE Terpinolène is a terpene which is often present in a very wide panel of cannabic strains, but generally in very low proportion. The varieties in which the terpinolène is dominant are not very common. This terpene has a fairly complex organoleptic profile, because it can be described as a wooded mixture, herbaceous And floral.
We find him in the lilac, The tea tree, THE apples, THE cumin or the nutmeg. Laboratory studies, and more precisely on mice, have shown that its inhalation produces effects sedatives. It would also seem that this terpene has properties anticancer And antioxidants. Other recent scientific research, also explore the role of terpinolènes in the prevention of coronary diseases, using other antioxidants.
Ocimène offer a Sweet floral scent And wooded, quite subtle. As with Terpinolène, it is a terpene present in a very large sample of cannabis varieties, however rare are those where this aromatic component is dominant. We also find it in a large set of plants, such as the hop, THE kumquat, there mango, THE basil, there bergamot, there lavender, THE orchids or the pepper, in variable quantities.
Ocimène is widely used in the perfume industry, due to its soft, floral and herbaceous aromatic profile. There is scientific evidence revealing its properties anti-inflammatory. In general, it is produced by a plant to act as a powerful Faced with pest insects, it therefore plays a protective role.
2) Secondary terpenes Or Sesquiterpenes :
They are made up of 15 carbon atoms. THE Sesquiterpenes that we find most often in cannabis are the CARENE (Delta-3-Carène), Caryophyllène oxide, THE fenchol, Humulène, the linalool, Eucalyptol, bisabolol, THE nerolidol (Or Peruviol), Alpha-Phellandrene (has-phenlandrene), THE camphoron, α- β-y-terpinnes, THE Farnesnes or the Terpineol.
THE Delta-3-Carène is one of the main components of Essential pine oils. It has known properties as phytoncide (name given to a set of anti -microbial volatile organic compounds emitted in air by trees and herbaceous plants), it also demonstrates effects anti-inflammatory And anxiolytics. In addition, recent studies have shown that the hull has an effect for improving sleep and that the oral administration of Delta-3-Carène increases the duration of sleep and reduces sleep latency. He potentiates the synaptic responses which are moderate by the GABAA receptors, by extending the constant time of decline in inhibitory synaptic responses.
Karyophyllène oxide is an epoxy of its equity whose perfume can be described as costs, soft, dry, wooded And spicy. This is precisely a component used by drug sniff dogs to identify cannabis. He interacts with the system endocannabinoid. It is commonly found in The absinthe of the fields, salty heliotrope, there cinnamon, there stubborn sage and the basil.
THE fenchol presents an aromatic profile dominated by the camphor, strong And costs. This terpene shows a Large spectrum antibacterial activity, and could play a role in the relief of pain by inhibiting the TRPA1 receptor, which is a fundamental protein in the body pain signaling system.
Humulnene is also known as of α-capyophyllène (alpha caryophyllène), it is a terpene that we find in the Fleuri cone of hops. Humulène significantly contributes to the effects anti-inflammatory Cannabis. It is also considered an active mechanism in the fight against tumors, as evidenced by its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).
THE linalool is a monoterpenic alcohol largely present as a major constituent of essential oils of plants, in particular concerning the lavender and the coriander. LINALOOL does not present any particular toxicity in itself, it has even been shown that it has a full range of bioactive synergistic virtues, in particular properties anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, antimicrobials, antinoceptive, analgesic And neuroprotectors. In addition, Linalool produces anxiolytics and antidepressive through the 5-HT1A serotonin receiver.
Eucalyptol emanates as its name suggests, a strong smell fresh, marked And Slightly spicy eucalyptus. We frequently find this terpene in eucalyptus as in certain varieties orchid. Scientific investigations have revealed that eucalyptol demonstrates properties anti-inflammatory And analgesic obvious.
THE bisabolol has a rather perfume soft, close to citrus and some chamomile. It is found precisely in chamomile and other natural spices. It is a terpene widely used in the perfume industry. Some institutional studies have shown that bisabolol has properties anti-inflammatory And antibacterial.
THE nerolidol is an alcohol sesquiterpenic that is found as a major element in the composition of essential oils of neroli, of Myrocarpus Fastigiatus and of Brassa Volanodosa. It is also present in the lower proportion in the ginger, there lavender and the lemongrass. This terpene is commonly used in perfumery, thanks to its aromatic profile floral, fruity, costs, intense And particular. It is also used to develop Cologne water. It would seem that nerolidol has virtues antiseptics, energizing And anti-fungal.
Alpha-Phellandrene gives off a pleasant smell of mint And citrus. It is the main constituent of essential oils from certain varieties eucalyptus. Scientific studies show that A-Phellandrine may have multiple beneficial properties, such as Reinforcement of the immune system, or properties antifungal, anti-inflammatory And analgesic.
THE camphoron is a terpene that has a smell spicy And herbaceous. This is a major element used in the composition of mastic gum oil. It is also found in minority quantities in essential oils of turpentine, of cypress, of camphor, of lemongrass, of neroli, of ginger and of valerian. The Camphene has effects Hypchocholesterolemic And hypotriglyceridemic, which allow better internal preventive regulation of cholesterol and triglycerides. It is also used for applications in Ayurvedic practice.
THE Alpha, Beta And Y-terpinens are present in the Jamaica pepper, Eucalyptus, THE citrus, THE juniper, The tea tree, there cardamom and the marjoram. The α isomer (alpha) is also studied as an anti -cancer compound.
THE Farnesnes gives off a strong smell of greenery and of apple. We find it in a minority quantity in the basil, there apple, there mint and the ginger. It is used by certain insects for communication. It is also present in certain plants that use it as repulsive against pests. Farnesène is an element used for the manufacture of tires in the automotive sector, as for the development of many fragrances in the perfume industry. It seems that he has properties antibacterial interesting.
THE terpinéol is a monocyclical monoterpenic alcohol, which is essentially found in the essential oil of pine, as in other trees as well as certain plants (lavender, juniper, livèche And marjoram). We identify it thanks to its perfume similar to that of Lily of the valley, of lilac and some hyacinth. Terpinéol is used for the manufacture of soaps and also for other uses in cosmetics. A scientific study demonstrates that he could act beneficial for fight against depression.
3) Tertiary terpenes:
These are those that are found in small quantities in the cannabis plant: bordea, guaiol, ceded, camphor, phytol, geranyle acetate, pulegone, cymene and isopulegol (acetate of menthyle).
THE bounded is a monoterpene, which is identified using its smell mint, herbaceous, and even woody. The latter is present in the ginger, The sagebrush, Artemisia, THE rosemary, there sage, oregano and some types of cinnamon. It is used by industrial manufacturers for the development of different products repellents against insects. It seems that he plays an important role in terms of The entourage effect, in addition to the action of other terpenes.
Therapeutic levels, recent scientific investigations would have shown that it contributes quite effectively to apoptosis of cancer cells, in other words, it causes the natural death of the latter. Other studies mention that it also has properties antiviral, since it is a powerful inhibitor of the Type 1 herpes virus virus.
THE Guaiol is an alcohol sesquiterpenic, whose aromatic profile is similar to that of pine, and which can therefore be easily confused with the pinene. This is present in certain trees, such as the guaiacum, THE pine and the cypress. On the medical level, it turns out to be interesting, because it has a strong potential anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal And anti-virus.
The ceded :
THE ceded is a sesquiterpene that we find in Cedar essential oil, which is extracted from the tree that bears the same name. This terpene is a great antiparasitic And anti-inflammatory natural.
THE camphor is a bicyclical terpene, from the Camphrier (Cinnamomum Camphora). You can easily confuse it with the bounded, Because their smell is quite similar. It’s an excellent antifungal And antiparasitic, because it demonstrates strong efficiency by actively fighting against pathogens and by producing a powerful repellant effect against insects. It has been observed that camphor has interesting properties antiseptics, anti-inflammatory And antimicrobials.
THE phytol is one of the main acyclic so -called alcohols, which is a precursor of vitamins E and K. It is a very common terpene, found in many plants to esterified chlorophyll as the green tea, or the milk, THE eggs and also in oil sediments. He gives off a strong smell Floral balsamic And fresh, this is one of the reasons why it is used in the cosmetic sector. Several scientific studies have shown that it has virtues soothing, digestive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cargeries and that it also strengthens immune defenses.
Geranyle acetate is a monoterpene that has a characteristic fragrance floral And fruity reminding us that of the pink. It is naturally present in oils of lemongrass, of roses, palmarosa or coriander. Geranyle acetate is widely used in cosmetics as a perfume agent in the manufacture of soaps and creams. This terpene has properties soothing, antispasmodics, analgesics And anti-inflammatory.
THE pullegone is a monocyclical monoterpene that gives off a strong smell that reminds us of the pepper mint, of pouliot and the camphor. This terpene is used in the aromatherapy sector as in perfumery. It can be a powerful natural insecticide against pests, but be careful, because it can be toxic in high concentration. Fortunately, pulegone is present in tiny quantities in the cannabis plant.
Cymene is a monoterpene whose aromatic profile is intensely herbaceous And spicy. It is generally found in essential oils of cumin and of thyme. Multiple international scientific investigations, have revealed that Cymene is a powerful analgesic natural and also has properties anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral And expectorant.
Isopulegol or mentyle acetate, is simply a precursor of menthol, it is a monoterpenic alcohol whose aroma is Intensely menthole. He is present in the Mint Pouliot And Lemon eucalyptus. Therapeutically, scientific studies have shown that Isopulegol has virtues analgesics, anxiolytics, relaxing, gastroprotective And anti-inflammatory.